Historians who examine Europe and the events of late eighteenth and early to mid-nineteenth century often refer to the period as the “dual revolution.”  While political systems were loudly altering the concept of the state, sovereignty and the citizen, economic systems were quietly and almost imperceptibly transforming society in a far more permanent manner.  This unit examines the roots of the quietly developing industrial revolution as well as the post Napoleonic concepts of liberalism and conservativism and their by-products nationalism, socialism and romanticism.  

Key forces in this period were the conservative aristocrats and the middle-class and working-class liberals and nationalists.  Conservatives wanted to maintain the status quo and reinstill a sense of traditional European values and practices.  Liberals and nationalists sought to carry on the destruction of the old regime of Europe that had begun in France in 1789.  The symbol of conservatism in this period was Prince Metternich of Austria.  Metternich was convinced that liberalism and nationalism were destructive forces that had to be repressed.  In opposition, liberals and nationalists vehemently and relentlessly pushed their creeds as ways to free humanity from the burden of supporting a lazy aristocracy and from the threats of foreign oppression.  

Ultimately these forces and their dreams for Europe collided in 1848, a year of revolutions and upheavals.  Of the major powers who dealt directly with these forces, only Britain managed to balance reform with traditional systems and thus remained untouched by revolution.  For the rest of Europe, the result was the birth of a new type of European leadership, neither totally liberal, nor totally conservative.   The leader’s of this new Europe would eventually become known as nationalists who themselves would grapple with even more debate and discussion among the ideologically charged environment of late nineteenth century Europe.   

Unit Four Syllabus


 Reader X: 
The Nineteenth Century
 Reader XI: 
The Nineteenth Century
 The Third-Class Carriage
Liberty Leading the People
  Pages 368-392
Pages 394-412 
   Pages 413-432

Industrialization: Change and Reaction
Class 01 Introduction to the Nineteenth Century or This Looks Pretty Familiar
Class 02 Society and Industrialization or King of the Mill
Class 03 Industrialization Abroad, or Like Pebbles in a Pond....
Class 04 The Working Class and Working Conditions, or poor, poor Oliver
Class 05 Reactions to the Industrial Revolution, or Isms, isms and more isms
The English Franchise: 1832 and Beyond
Class 06 Chartists and the Reform Bill of 1832, or Count me, please, count me
Class 07 & 08 The Reform Act of 1867, or More leaves in the franchise table
The French Experience: Unrest and Parisian Mobs
Class 09 More of the Same in France: 1815-1848, or The Brother ain't so ruse
Class 10 More of the Same in France: 1815-1848, or You don't like my dinner party?
Marx and 1848: Arise ye pris'ner of starvation
Class 11 & 12 The Year of Revolutions or Run, King, Run!
Class 13 The Year of Revolutions of Arise ye pris'ners of starvation
Class 16 Art in the 19th Century
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