Research Guides

Research Guidelines and Bibliography Guide

Guidelines for Research

PLANNING
   
Purpose 
    Discovering what it is you want to know.
    Building on what it is you already know.
    Thinking through the requirements of the project and the steps you will 
            need to get to the final phase of your project.
 
Activities       
    Read in area of interest; consult general reference works.
    Come up with a set of questions about what it is you want to know.
    Brainstorm key words for beginning research.  
Outcome
    You have a clear overall question you want to answer with possibly
            some sub-questions.

    You have a set of key search terms with which to be able to begin to 
            find information.

LOCATE AND GATHER RESOURCES 
Purpose 
    Finding where your source material will come from (public or school library, 
            community resources) in order to answer
your
question and locating a 
            variety of materials in different mediums and
from varying perspectives.       

    Finding out if you have enough resources available to answer your
            particular
research question.           
 
Activities
    Make a list of all you possible resources.
    Using key terms, locate resources -- print, databases, Internet, other    
Outcomes
    You have a variety of resources at your disposal with which to begin
            research.
 

EXTRACT AND ORGANIZE INFORMATION
Purpose
    Pulling together information and beginning to organize in a logical
            way.
    Beginning to formulate a perspective on your material.
Activities
    Read and review your resources; note-taking and keeping track of
            sources.
    Determine if you have enough information to answer question.
    Begin to formulate your conclusions.   
Outcome
    You have a body of information from a variety of resources and
            perspectives and you have a logical sequence for ordering your
            information.

CREATE FINAL PRODUCT
Purpose
    Putting all your materials and all you have learned into a final form both 
            for yourself and in order to share your findings with others.
Activities
    Follow presentation guidelines.
    Present information within the context of your own ideas and the perspective 
            you have gained by doing the research.
    Include a comprehensive list of citations, footnotes, and whatever
            is required for the project.
Outcome
    You have a clear, concise answer to your question in a format in which others can
            understand
 your research project
(purpose, research, answers).

SELF-EVALUATION  
Purpose
    Reflecting on the research process -- how well you answered the
            main question, how well the research process went, and how
            well the final product fit the assignment.

Activities 
    Reflect on the following questions with regard to process:
                How effective and efficient were you in doing the required project?
                What did you learn from each stage of the process?
                How would you do it differently next time?
                Were your sources useful; what sources did you need and not have?
    Reflect on the following with regard to product:
                Compare product to the assignment given.
                Did you give credit to all of your sources?
                Is the work neat and are you proud of your work?
                Can others easily understand your outcomes?  
Outcome 
    You have some insight into the process you went through to create
            the product you did and you have ideas about how to improve
            your performance in future projects.

 
Bibliography Guide

A guide to citing sources and bibliography formats

The recommended format for bibliographic citation and parenthetical documentation  (footnotes) used at West Windsor-Plainsboro High School North is based on the Modern Language Association (MLA) rules.  Samples of the format for different sources are listed below.  Also note, High School North subscribes to Noodle Tools Bibliography Maker:
www.noodletools.com    Click on NoodleBib 3.0 and begin to make your bibliography.

Preparing a list of "Works Cited"

A list of "Works Cited" is a bibliography, a list of sources used in writing a research paper.  A bibliography appears at the end of the paper, is double-spaced within and between sources and is usually arranged in alphabetical order by author's last name.  Sources without an author are arranged in alphabetical order by title within the same list (ignoring initial "A", "An", or "The").  The first line of each source is flush with the left margin; succeeding lines are indented one-half inch. 

For questions about citation formats that are not answered in the following samples, please refer to the MLA Handbook available in the Reference section.  

NETWORK CD ROM

Pachner, Joan H. “Abstract Art.” Encyclopedia Americana. CD ROM. 
        
        Danbury, CT.: Grolier Educational, 1997.

BOOK: SINGLE AUTHOR / PAMPHLET
 
Dow, Lesley. Alligators and Crocodiles. New York: Facts on File,1995.

BOOKS: TWO OR MORE AUTHORS

Bowring, Richard and Peter Koricki.  The Cambridge Encyclopedia Of Japan.  New York: 

        Cambridge University Press, 1996.

(For more than three authors, only the first needs to be cited followed by et al., or give the names of all authors in the order theyappear on the title page.)

A WORK FOUND IN AN ANTHOLOGY OR COMPILATION

Whittier, John Greenleaf.  “In School Days.”  The Oxford Book of Children’s Verse in
 
        America.  Donald Hall.  New York: Oxford University Press, 1985. 60-61.

A PREVIOUSLY PUBLISHED ARTICLE REPRINTED IN A COLLECTION

Porter, Thomas E.  “Acres of Diamonds: Death of a Salesman.” 

        Myth and Modern American Drama (1969): 127-152.  Rpt. In Critical Essays 

        on Arthur Miller
James Martine.  New York:G.K. Hall & Co., 1979. 24-43.

A MULTI-VOLUME WORK

Churchill, Winston S.  A History of the English Speaking Peoples4 Vols.  

        New York: Dodd, 1956-58.

ONE VOLUME ONLY OF A MULTI VOLUME WORK

Brucker, Carl.  “Ralph Ellison.”  Magill’s Survey of American Literature.  Ed. Frank N.
 
        Magill.  Vol. 2. New York:
Marshall Cavendish, 1991. 618-26.

ENCYCLOPEDIA ARTICLE

White, Charles S.  “Hinduism.”  The World Book Encyclopedia1997 ed.

(when citing less familiar encyclopedias, give publication information, as below)

Tester, P.  “Respiratory Systems.”  Encyclopedia of Life Sciences.  11 Vols.  New

      York: Marshall Cavendish, 1996.

GOVERNMENT PUBLICATIONS

United States. Cong. Senate. Subcommittee on Constitutional Amendments of the

      Committee on the Judiciary.  Hearings on the Equal Rights Amendment

      91st Cong., 2nd 
Sess., S. Res.61. Washington: GPO, 1970.

ARTICLE IN A SCHOLARLY JOURNAL

Flannigan, Beverly Olson.  “Peer Tutoring and Second Language Acquisition in the 

        Elementary School.”  Applied Linguistics 12 (1991): 141-58.

INTERVIEW CONDUCTED BY ANOTHER PERSON

Clinton, William.  Interview with George Will.  This Week With David Brinkley.  

        ABC. WABC, New York. 5 April 1995.

ON LINE DATABASE

Stevenson, Richard W.  “White House says It Supports A Bill To Overhaul I.R.S.”  

        New York Times 22 Oct. 1997, late ed.:  C1.  Proquest Direct. Online.  UMI. 30

        Oct. 1997.

(Cite the work as it was originally published, then give the program it was obtained from and the service through which it was accessed (UMI).  Include enough detail so others can find the article and include the date it was found).

LASERDISC

The Western Civilization Videodisc.  2nd ed.  Frame # 51094+. Laserdisc.  

        Instructional Resources, 1997.

(If individual frames are used, list first frame number followed by “+” sign.  When using video sequence, give first and last frame number or chapter).

MUSIC

Clapton, Eric.  “Tears in Heaven.”  Eric Clapton Unplugged.   Audio cassette.  Reprise,

     1992.

(If not using compact disc, indicate the format the recording is on).

WORLD WIDE WEB

Burka, Lauren P.  “A Hypertext History of Multi-User Dimensions.”  MUD History. 1993.

         <http://www.ccs.new.edu/home//pb/mud history.html>  5 Dec. 1994.

(Web page author, title of article, title of web page, copyright date, web address, date of search).

FILM

Of Mice and Men.  Dir. Gary Sinise. Perf. John Malkovitch, Gary Sinise. MGM/UA, 1992.

(When citing a film, give the title, director, distributor and the year.  Any other credits -e.g., screenwriter, producer, performers- which are relevant, may be added to the citation).

VIDEOCASSETTE

Shakespeare and the Globe.  Dir. Paul Shepard. Videocassette. Films for Humanities, 1993.

NONPERIODICAL PUBLICATION ON CD ROM

“The Rise of Classical Civilization in China.”  Discovering World History. CD ROM. 

        New York: Gale, 1997.

MATERIAL FROM PERIODICALLY PUBLISHED DATABASE ON CD ROM (Magazine Database on CD ROM)

 “Relieve Pain Now.”  Prevention  1 July, 1997.  Ebsco Elite. CD ROM. Ebsco Publishing,

       October 1997.

ARTICLE ON MICROFORM (Microfilm/Microfiche)

 Chapman, Dan. “Study in New York Finds 28% of Surgery Unnecessary.” 

      New York Times 15 Dec. 1974: 1. New York Times School Microfilm Collection

      Dec. 11-20, 1974: Reel 226.

(Author, Article Title, Periodical, Date, Page, Fiche Collection, Date, Reel or Card#).

ARTICLE FROM A WEEKLY MAGAZINE


Bezell, Robert.  “Science and Society: Growth Industry.”  New Republic 15 Mar.

     1993:13-14.

(For monthly magazines, give month and year; give month,
day and year for magazines published more frequently.  When article is not printed on consecutive pages, use first page number and a “+” sign., e.g. 45+).

ARTICLE FROM A DAILY NEWSPAPER

Heine, William K.  “Shore’s Lawmakers Vote As One.”  Asbury Park Press 30 Oct. 1997,

     A1+.

EDITORIAL


Zuckerman, Mortimer B.  “Welcome to Communicopia.”  Editorial. 


     US News and World  Report  1 Nov. 1993: 116.

REVIEW (Book or Movie) 

Towers, Robert.  “Mystery Women.” Rev of Cat’s Eye. By Margaret Atwood.  

        Library Journal Apr. 1990: 50-51.

Kauffman, Stanley.  “A New Spielberg.” Rev. of  Schindler’s List. Dir. Steven Spielberg.  

        New Republic 13 Dec. 1993: 30.

INTERVIEW CONDUCTED BY YOU

 Scieszka, Jon.  Personal Interview. 30 Oct. 1997.

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